Thursday, May 28, 2020
In Kate Chopins controversial novel The Awakening, the protagonist, Mrs. Edna Pontellier, experiences a personal rebirth, becoming an independent, sexual, and feeling woman, shunning the restraints of the oppressive society in which she lives. This awakening happens on Grand Isle, a luxurious island on which Edna vacations in the summer. Following her awakening, she must return to her permanent home in New Orleans. Through the two settings (The Grand Isle and New Orleans), Chopin shows the reader the rift between Edna and her husband Leonce; this disparity ties into a larger theme of the difference between love and possession, and the contrast between freedom and oppression. In the first chapter, the reader is introduced to Ednas husband, Leonce Pontellier, who is sitting on the porch while his wife swims with her young admirer, Robert. Leonce, a New Orleans businessman, is obviously out-of-place in the lush, relaxing atmosphere of Grand Isle. He is irritated by the sounds and g oings-on around him, such as the Madame Lebruns parrot and the Farival twins playing piano, and hardly seems impressed by the beauty of the land; rather, the narrator describes the young people playing croquet and the woman with beads in a quite passive tone, signifying Leonces boredom with his surroundings. The first truly rich description offered to the reader occurs when Leonce catches a glimpse of his wife: The gulf looked far away, melting hazily into the blue of the horizon. The sunshade continued to approach slowly=2E Beneath its pink-lined shelter were his wife, Mrs. Pontellier, and young Robert Lebrun. This introduction immediately reveals the rift between husband and wife: Leonce trying to mentally escape Grand Isle by reading his day-old paper, and Edna embracing Grand Isle by lazily partaking in its pleasures, such as swimming and flirtation. As the novel progresses, Edna grows to relate the ocean with romance, beauty, and perfection, while Leonce only associates it with annoyance and wishes to leave it. The narrator remarks that Leonce, noticing Ednas sunburn, looks at her as one looks at a valuable piece of personal property which has suffered some damage. This introduces the difference between love and possession: while Robert spends leisure time with Edna, enjoying the ocean and appreciating her company as a function of what we later discover to be his true love for her, Leonce declines to partake in Ednas favorite activities, and only regards her as a piece of property to be cultivated and cared for. He further escapes the atmosphere of Grand Isle by leaving the house to go play billiards with the other men and displaying ambivalence about returning home for dinner. His wish to be surrounded by other businessmen playing mens games intensifies our understanding of their rift: though he is only going to another spot on the island, he is mentally in another world, unable to understand the environment of his wife and her young admirer. W hen he returns from playing billiards and wants to talk to his wife about his night, she is indifferent and wants him to leave her alone so she can sleep; she has no desire for his world to collide with hers. They argue because Leonce grows frustrated with Ednas lack of concern for their children; this may actually signify a wish to control Edna and keep her in her place. When, during the business week, Leonce leaves for work in New Orleans and Edna stays in her sphere, he sends home luxuriant gifts which reassure everyone, including Edna, that he is the perfect husband. The gifts, however, do nothing to bring them closer together, because he exists in his cold world of numbers and money, and a gift sent from his world to hers means little. Instances of his sense of possession on Grand Isle come up numerous other times, such as when he demands that Edna come in from lounging in the hammock; he is not as concerned for her safety as he is about his property being harmed by mosquit oes, and about his desire going unsatisfied. Although he has seen Edna swim out, become frightened, and leave the beach, it is not Leonce, but Robert who follows Edna home after her experience; Leonce only returns when he feels like it, and immediately takes on the role of the demanding husband. This stands in direct contrast to Edna and Robert, who are souls of the island and the ocean. The theme is continued when the couple returns to New Orleans. Leonce expects Edna to act like a possession, dressing well and receiving guests to assure others of his high post in society. Since Grand Isle is more Ednas world than Leonces, he doesnt expect as much from her there as he does in the city. However, upon their return to New Orleans, Leonce makes demands on her, the cook, and others in order to ensure that he is comfortable in his environment; as Edna is now in his sphere, he feels even more of a right to possession. As she descends deeper and deeper into her own world, he consult s a doctor about her behavior, more out of concern for keeping up appearances than for his wifes health. The narrator describes the pleasure Leonce takes in examining the objects that he has acquired for his house and the extended time that he spends away from home, securing more and more business deals to make more and more money; one can assume that Edna has just as much significance as a sculpture on the mantle in his business-obsessed setting. This significantly contrasts with Edna and Roberts relationship: when Edna is on Grande Isle, she is very much in Roberts sphere, but he helps her to become at one with it, and demands from her nothing but the pleasure of her company. As Leonce begins to spend less and less time with Edna, remaining in his cold world of business and money-hoarding, Edna begins to engage in serious flirtation, and eventually consummates an affair with Alcee Arobin: now that her appetite for love and sex has been unearthed by Grand Isle, she will not let the cold attitude of her husband force her to suffer in silence. When she begins her liaison with Arobin, she feels a pang of guilt for being unfaithful not to her husband, but to Robert, who values her and does not seek to possess her. Edna does not live by the social dictate that marriage is a sacred and unbreakable bond; rather, she admits the loveless state of her marriage and her true reasons for agreeing to Leonces proposal, and seeks love outside her union. This feature of her awakening reaches its peak when, in the haven of Mademoiselle Reiszs home, she confesses her love for Robert. The second significant function of setting, the contrast between freedom and oppression, is also introduced very early in the story. Through observing her friends and neighbors on Grand Isle, Edna receives a message of unrestrained sexuality combined with strict chastity. Creole society, of which the Protestant Edna is not originally a part, while accepting of Edna, is quite different. Th e men and women of Grand Isle choose openly sexual subjects for discussion, read sensual literature, and flirt without thought, because Creole husbands are certain of their wives faithfulness, and never become jealous; at the same time, they are quite proper in action, and no thought of actual infidelity or sordid affairs between unmarried persons ever exists. This reveals the strong freedom of thought encouraged on Grand Isle; while New Orleans is also largely Creole, Edna does not feel free there due to the restraints placed on her by her husband. Because she is used to traditional restraints, Edna is not at one with the free culture that she finds herself in the midst of at the start of her summer on the Isle. As the summer progresses and she is sexually and mentally awakened, the freedom of her setting becomes a part of her, and forces her to feel alone and stifled in the city. The ocean, the center of her existence on the Isle, is largely responsible for her awakening and h er subsequent longing for Grand Isle. In the beginning of the summer, she mentions being so afraid of the water that even some of the children try to help her learn how to swim. However, the ocean slowly seduces her; she is confused about why she rejects Roberts invitation to go for a swim, but goes anyway. In this short chapter, the narrator tells us that Ednas eyes are fully opened by the ocean, its seductive voice calling her to inner contemplation and to the realization of her place in the universe. This is probably Ednas first true realization that she is her own person; it is something she has sensed before due in her silent protest against being defined only by her relationship to her husband and children, but it is a realization that she was previously unable understand. The next chapter shows Edna slowly loosening her reserve at Grand Isle, allowing herself to be drawn to Adele Ratignolles beauty and confiding in her, and being confused but charmed by Adeles outward af fections. The oceans seduction of Edna culminates when she swims, in her own mind, further than anyone has ever swam and becomes completely free; her momentary fear of death is significant because taking a risk that may kill her makes her feel as though she has broken her figurative bindings. Although her husband simply scoffs at her and informs her that she did not go very far, she is a new woman the ocean is cemented into place as the center of her liberation, and both Robert and Edna realize their desire for each other. Furthermore, Leonce experiences outward insubordination from his wife for the first time. Just as Edna is beginning to blossom and make her own decisions, such as inviting Robert to go to the Mass with her, she discovers that he is leaving for Mexico; in their fumbling and formal farewell, they become aware of their mutual frustration over their unrequited love and their efforts to keep their relationship chaste and appropriate. At the end of her stay at Gra nd Isle, Edna confides to Adele that she would never sacrifice herself for her children, a notion that she had held for a long time but was afraid to confess, signifying that the free atmosphere of her setting has transformed her into her own person. The Pontelliers return to New Orleans signifies Leonces return to his element, as well as Ednas return to oppression and stuffily formal duties, such as receiving visitors each Tuesday for the purpose of keeping the Pontellier name honorable in the society. Edna, newly awakened and drawn to her own whims, decides not to receive her visitors; this causes a squabble between her and Leonce, who is, as always, irritated at her shortcomings as a traditional society wife. When he stomps off to the club, he signifies his continued presence in the New Orleans setting, standing in contrast to Ednas internalization of the Grand Isle. Leonce briefly struggles to drag Edna back into his world, but she has become too independent, and refuses with little effort. She begins to pursue art more seriously, and becomes depressed by her friend Adeles limited life with her husband and children. It is evident that despite Ednas adoration for Madame Ratignolle, she realizes that Adele is much more a part of New Orleans, very much at home with the rules of traditionalism. When the awakened Edna begins to frequent the home of Mademoiselle Reisz, she sees a prime example of another independent woman who refuses to conform and instead dedicates herself to her art. Because of this, she is more or less shunned by society, even though she is admired for her piano playing. Thus, we see a contrast within a contrast: the disparity between the woman who is content with tradition and is unknowingly condemned to a life devoid of wonder and self-discovery, and a woman who scorns tradition and cannot therefore be a full member of society. Edna continues to live her life as she wants, shunning her rigid setting, waving her husband away as a nu isance, and visiting her outcast friend to hear Roberts letters about her; the two women get along because they are both liberated, one more than the other. Mademoiselles apartment is another dimension: in the traditional, structured New Orleans setting, it seems like a haven of freedom, explaining Ednas wish to go there often despite her confusion about Mademoiselle. As the relationship between Edna and Mademoiselle develops and she comes often to read the letters and listen to the music, Mademoiselle and her home become vital to Ednas complete realization of her love for Robert Lebrun. Meanwhile, when Leonce visits Doctor Mandelet, their conversation about Edna further exposes the male attitudes towards women in this traditional society. In Grand Isle, the references to mother-women are numerous, and the narrator makes it clear what was expected of respectable women. Never before have we seen an attitude towards women as condescending we see during the discussion between Leon ce and the doctor in the city. They view women who defy constraints as mentally unstable, and in general far less mature, almost childish in short, in need of looking-after by the men in their lives. The men refer to feminists as pseudo-intellectuals, and talk scornfully about any notions Edna might have about womens rights. While the doctor is perceptive enough to realize that Edna might be having an affair (and sensitive enough not to hint about this to Leonce), it is nevertheless clear that he views women as inferior to men. As the plot progresses, Edna becomes more and more eccentric, while Leonce spends more and more time away from home. The children are sent off to their grandmother, and Edna becomes a frequent racetrack patron, thereby beginning her affair with Alcee Arobin. As a further function of her independence, she decides to make a final break from the oppressive environment of New Orleans society by moving out of her husbands house and into a smaller one, and t o support herself by gambling and selling her art. This signifies that she has stopped allowing herself to be defined by her setting, and has become a wholly independent woman. Although she is only moving around the corner, the small house is not a part of New Orleans society, and is therefore not subject to its constraints; it is as much a haven, a small piece of a freer world, as is the house of Mademoiselle Reisz. It is there that she and Robert confess their true love for each other something that they cannot do anywhere else but Grand Isle. The novel ends, appropriately, where it begins: at the beach in Grand Isle. Edna goes to take a swim after informing Victor of her presence. She returns to the beach and finds her old swimsuit, but then chooses to simply swim naked. As she swims out, she is consciously performing her last act: suicide. The first thoughts that run through her head are of her husband and children, whom she sees as her biggest restraints, who think they can possess her. She then thinks of Mademoiselle Reisz, who seems to be taunting her for lacking the courage to do what she wants. She finally fades out to a thought of Roberts farewell letter, and images of her family. Just as the seductive ocean awakens her to the possibilities of life at the beginning, it frees her from all her restraints, and gives her the only way out afforded to the traditional female: death.As we learn in the introduction, when The Awakening was first published in 1899, it opened to such widespread criticism that it abruptly ended the career of its talented and potentially prolific author. The critics, mostly men and traditionalists, were shocked by the indecency of the novel, which dared finally to give a female protagonist a soul, a mind, a sexual appetite, and a desire for true love. By providing two contrasting settings, Grand Isle and New Orleans, and by sprinkling the cold city setting with small havens of freedom, Kate Chopin offers her reade rs a clear view of the established social order of her day, and of the difficulty of breaking out of that order. The heroine, after a lengthy process of liberation, ultimately realizes that her only real way out is through suicide. By internalizing of the passions of the beach and breaking of the chains of the city, Edna Pontellier becomes a true feminist heroine. Likewise, Kate Chopin becomes a stifled but strong voice for liberty in the face of an enslavingly sexist, conservative traditionalism.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
As World War I raged about Europe, Great Britain took every measure available to ensure the war didnt spread into their own backyard. Their army was doing fine fighting elsewhere in France and Germany, but as William I proved in 1066, when you invade England, its not the English that win. Britons lived in constant fear of a takeover by the German huns, and this fear inspired Graham Greene to comment on morality in man in his short story, I Spy. Greene explains, through the conflict that his protagonists suffer, that sometimes societys morals are artificially removed, for example in a time of war in which the object is to kill as many people as possible that arent on your side. In these situations, people have to make their ownÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Finally, the setting of I Spy does a great deal to support the central idea of having to choose ones moral decisions. This is Great Britain in the early twentieth century, when the last remnants of the British Empire are being swep t away and global warfare is everyones biggest fear. Britain is also coming off its jingoism (meaning incredibly nationalistic) policy, meaning that there are a great deal of ardent patriots living in the area. Charlies mother is one of these, having nothing but good to say about the queen, and nothing but bad to say about the Germans. Charlies father also validates the patriotism, saying that once the neighbors find out he is a spy, they will tear down the tobacconists shop. These neighbors would normally not band together to do such a violent act, but for the time. They are used to hearing that everything related to Britain is perfect, and everything related to Germany should be destroyed, and will act accordingly. The story takes place in a coastal town, so spotlights are continually sweeping across the sea looking for German boats, and across the skies looking for enemy dirigibles. These lights serve a dual purpose, however, and subconsciously remind the population that even the y can be watched. This may lead to conflict within ordinary people, who may always worry
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The Theme of Family in the Oresteia and the Medea Understanding Greek tragedy depends upon tracing the growth of characters and themes within the plays and how they help to highlight the greater significance of the work. A prominent theme discussed by the tragedians is that of family and is dominant in both the Oresteia and the Medea. The Oresteia centers on concepts of what family is and how obligations within a family transcend personal desires and dictate the life of individuals. The Medea on the other hand focuses upon the sanctity of familial bonds that must be cherished and how the family can be used to extract revenge and inflict pain upon a person. Both works share the idea that the ties within the family bring certainÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The play sheds light on the familial bond of marriage between Medea and Jason. He treats her as if sheÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"something won in a foreign landÃ¢â¬ who, since he no longer has use of her, can be disposed. In her misery Medea tells us that she not only eloped with Jason b ut also betrayed her father and her household in doing so. (74:476-484) Thus, we are forced to see her torment as a punishment for her previous actions. It seems pretty clear that Jason and her share a Ã¢â¬Å"diseased loveÃ¢â¬ and their relationship has been built upon exploitation and lust. The realization that the play is trying to draw is that one cannot replace familial bonds with those of infatuation and that betrayal of your family has terrible consequences. Medea was the cause of pain for her father and in return receives pain from her own family as well. She eventually is able to see her wrong doings (86:799-802) yet the sexual jealousy that encompasses her drives her to revenge. It is clear that Jason must suffer for his actions yet the innocent slaughter of the foolish king and his pure daughter portray her as a wicked spiteful creature. She seems to be driven by a value system that is inconsistent with that of the tragedies i.e. the beliefs of an epic hero. But in th e world of tragedy, epic has no place and we see the nurse trying to wish away its existence.Show MoreRelatedTheme Of Family Loyalty In Hamlet1078 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrelationship with others helps develop a personÃ¢â¬â¢s values and beliefs. William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of how committing to a certain task can easily be renounced in the event of family loyalty being jeopardized or personal beliefs at stake. Themes of family loyalty and personal struggles are represented through OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s hardships with having to be forced to decide between her family and Hamlet. As well Hamlet struggles as he is trying to avenge his father but finding difficulty doing theRead MoreHamlet Theme Family Essay886 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGrace 1 Kayla Grace October 29, 2012 Unit 2: Family 797 words Hamlet: Family Relationships The theme, family, in The Tragedy of Hamlet is major theme with lots of major points. This play is notorious for how it dwells on the issue of incest. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s time, incest was a sin against God and the state. Queen Elizabeth I asked the Church of England to come up with a list of rules about marriage, basically a list of relatives who couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t marry, including in-laws. Also another focus isRead MoreAntigone- Theme of Family Loyalty1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBetrayal of Family Loyalty In the play Antigone, written by Greek playwright Sophocles, loyalty to family seems to be a recurring theme. 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She states Ã¢â¬Å"You have begot me, bred meRead MoreThe Theme Of Family In Marilynne Robinsons Gilead771 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Ohana means family. Family means nobody gets left behind Ã¢â¬â or forgotten (Lilo and Stitch).Ã¢â¬ That quote resonates with numerous children and even adults since the movieÃ¢â¬â¢s release. People have different definitions of what it means to be a family. Either it means that we should care for each other or provide for one and another. Family is a strong topic that everyone thinks of. For education, we may say we want to achieve a college degree, so we can obtain a well-paying job. However, it is for theRead MoreThe Theme Of Family In Charles Dickenss A Christmas Carol925 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCharles Dickens weaves the theme of family, and all of its aspects, throughout his novel titl ed A Christmas Carol to create a compelling reminder of the value of perspective. The bookÃ¢â¬â¢s main character, Scrooge, finds himself on a journey guided by three spirits, a journey which eventually serves to forever change his perspective on life. Dickens skillfully incorporates various pictures of family dynamics through all three of his Ã¢â¬Å"spiritsÃ¢â¬ : The Ghost of Christmas Past, the Ghost of Christmas presentRead MoreTheme Of Family Dysfunction In As I Lay Dying1023 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages by William Faulkner the reader gets to see how hard life is for the Bundren family. The BundrenÃ¢â¬â¢s face many obstacles throughout the book and somehow manage to come through most of them okay. The family fulfills their desires along the way to relieve them of these struggles. The main theme in As I Lay Dying is family dysfunction, and this family dysfunction leads to DarlÃ¢â¬â¢s insanity. Family Dysfunction is the main theme in As I Lay Dying. The reader can see this from the beginning when Cash is buildingRead MoreThe s Central Themes : Redemption And Family Ties2308 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesIn Kramer v. Kramer (Benton, 1979), the use of motifs helps explore the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s central themes: redemption and family ties. As Ted Kramer experiences and embraces the perils of fatherhood, the film notes the changes in his life through the use of careful cinematography, framing, and editing. Motifs such as establishing shots, props such as plants and pictures, and TedÃ¢â¬â¢s interactions with his family. Though the film is set in the dense urban jungle of New York City, the framing of nature imagery andRead MoreThe Theme Of Family In The Round House By Louise Erdrich1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAn emphasis on family is one of the central facets of Native American culture. There is a sense of community between Native American. Louise Erdrich, a Chippewa Indian herself, writes a gripping bildungsroman about a thirteen year old boy named Joe who experiences all forms of family on the Native American Reserve where he lives. He learns to deal with the challenges of a blood family, witnesses toxic family relationships, and experiences a family-like love from the members of the community. In herRead MoreThe Theme Of Family In Little Women By Louisa May Alcott1027 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Theme- family is most important English 05 October 2017 Classic Novel Analysis In the novel Little Women by: Louisa May Alcott, a common theme is expressed throughout. To the family in this story, each other is the only thing that matters, therefore, displaying the message family is the most important thing you can have in your life. The four sisters, Jo, Meg, Beth, and Amy, belong to a very poor family in which the father is away at the military, leaving
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Through the last 200 years, the concept of terrorism has been used to as a reference to political motivations and has been used a way to obtain liberation, oppression, and international global politics (Ã¢â¬Å"State Of DelawareÃ¢â¬ , 2012). Since the terrorist attacks, police departments have adopted homeland security measures. Every police department has a homeland security measure and also added counterterrorism to their regular mission to enhance their capabilities. Police departments have obtained terrorism related equipment and training and recent grant allocations are a clear illustration of how things have changed since 9/11. Communities and individuals are more aware of their surroundings and are willing to cooperate with new security measures created as a result of terrorist attacks. Ã¢â¬Å"Through the past two hundred years, terrorism has been used to achieve political ends and has developed as a tool for liberation, oppression, and international global politicsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"State Of DelawareÃ¢â¬ , 2012). The Russian Revolution and Irish Republican Army Influence on Western Hemisphere The Russian revolution was responsible for the deaths of thousands of people. It was here that the idealization of revolutionary terrorism first surfaced. Ã¢â¬Å"Revolutionary Terrorism emerged as a strategic companion piece to the rise of various ideologies in the middle 1800s. Hand-in-hand with the failure of the relatively peaceful revolutions which had swept across Europe in 1848, many nationalists, anarchists and socialists were tempted by the politics of the gunÃ¢â¬ (Bowen, 2011). The Irish Republican Army (IRA), fought an insurgency that challenged British rule during the twentieth century. Warfare between 1916-1921 created an independent Irish Free State in 1921. The old IRAÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership agreed to allow IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s six northern counties to remain under British rule. The IRA rejected this partition so it organized a civil war. During the late 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, feelings of discrimination against Catholics in Northern Ireland instigated civil disobedience and violence. Ã¢â¬Å"The Irish Rebellion (1919 1921) The Irish War of 1919 brought three concepts to the development of terrorism (1) selective terrorism, (2) sustained terror over time and (3) cell operationsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"State Of DelawareÃ¢â¬ , 2012). During the late 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s, the IRA used to be considered one of the most dangerous terrorist organizations in the world. The IRA is responsible for 1,800 deaths that include 650 civilians, British troops, police officers, prison guards, and judges. Many of these people were unarmed or off-duty officers (Gregory, 2010). The Russian revolution and the Irish Republican Army influenced terrorism in the Western hemisphere by encouraging people to get involved in activism. Those involved in this activism were motivated by economic and idealistic reasons. College students who were encountering bad economic situations and who blamed the government for the hardships engaged in violent acts as a way to destroy industrialized capitalist structures. The Irish war provided the concept of terrorism to change aspects in society. They also introduced the concept of cell operation. Each cell has a specific goal or objective and each cell only knows that members who belong to that cell. Left-Wing Guerilla and Right-Wing Terrorism Left-wing guerilla ideological terrorism views the government as authoritarian and corrupt. The ideology for these groups is influenced by communist and socialist views. The FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces) in Colombia is a left-wing guerrilla. They are anti-American and have drawn support from the other communist and socialist countries such as Cuba and Soviet Union (Hanson, 2009). Right-wing terrorists are anti-Marxist and religious. This group supports the economic system and are usually in rural areas. They concentrate attacks on government figures. Modern right-wing terrorism began to appear in Western Europe around 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. Their beliefs include racism, opposition to immigration and people from other countries. Ã¢â¬Å"Some of these forms of terrorism have long traditions: violence against ethnic, racial, sexual and political minorities has been going on for decades, and even centuries, in some countriesÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"War On Terrorism And RacismÃ¢â¬ , 2011). Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism The introduction of weapons of mass destruction into terrorism has triggered the creation of new departments that have the responsibility to analyze all types of threat information in a single location. Such weapons include biological, chemical, nuclear and radiological devices, and range from the silent threat of a poison gas attack to a cataclysmic nuclear explosion. Those who would launch such attacks know thousands could die, of course, but their fundamental motive would be to strike fear and panic in tens of millions moreÃ¢â¬ (Porteus, 2006). The likelihood of terrorists being able to produce or ob tain weapons of mass destruction is the result of loose controls of the technology to produce such weapons, during the time of the former Soviet states. Weapons of mass destruction are very hard to produce and obtain. Some terrorist organizations have tried to develop the capabilities for weapons of mass destruction to attack the United States. Terrorist motivations are extreme and their ambitions seem limitless. The main goal is to keep terrorists from accessing materials or the means to manufacture the necessary components for creating weapons of mass destruction. Modern Terrorism and Creation of Department of Homeland Security The Department of Homeland Security was created on November 25, 2002 as a result of the 9/11 attacks. According to the DHS website their mission is the following: Ã¢â¬Å"The vision of homeland security is to ensure a homeland that is safe, secure, and resilient against terrorism and other hazards where American interests, aspirations, and way of life can thrive. Three key concepts form the foundation of our national homeland security strategy designed to achieve this vision: Security, Resilience, and Customs and ExchangeÃ¢â¬ . The Department of Homeland Security was created, as a response to the various security needs the United States needed as a result of modern terrorism. A number of agencies were combined to form the DHS. Modern Terrorism and Interagency Relationships Modern terrorism has changed the relationships between federal, state, and local government, and private corporations in a positive way. The war on terrorism has changed the mission of law enforcement and security agencies by emphasizing the need for interagency cooperation and communication. The Patriot Act is a good example of the need for interagency cooperation. The Patriot Act was created as a response to the 9/11 attacks. It was created to reduce the restrictions law enforcement agencies faced when gathering information during terrorism investigations, it expanded the authority to regulate financial transactions involving foreign individuals and entities broadened the discretion of law enforcement and immigration authorities in detaining and deporting immigrants suspected of terrorism. The definition of terrorism was also expanded and now it included domestic terrorism. As a result of the war on terrorism, law enforcementÃ¢â¬â¢s powers have been expanded. In conclusion, the Russian revolution was responsible for the deaths of thousands of people. It was here that the idealization of revolutionary terrorism first surfaced. The Irish Republican Army (IRA) fought an insurgency that challenged British rule during the twentieth century. The Russian revolution and the Irish Republican Army influenced terrorism in the Western hemisphere by encouraging people to get involved in activism. Those involved in this activism were motivated by economic and idealistic reasons. Left-wing guerilla ideological terrorism views the government as authoritarian and corrupt. The ideology for these groups is influenced by communist and socialist views. Right-wing terrorists are anti-Marxist and religious. This group supports the economic system and are usually in rural areas. The introduction of weapons of mass destruction into terrorism has triggered the creation of new departments that have the responsibility to analyze all types of threat information in a single location. The Department of Homeland Security was created, as a response to the various security needs the United States needed as a result of modern terrorism.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Paragraph Presentation Homosexuality: Nature or Nurture? by Jaime Yap I am interested in the topic of nature or nurture because I want to find out if homosexuality is biologically influenced or socially cultivated in order to understand how one ' s sexual orientation is developed. There is a social change that has been brought on by the revolution of attitudes towards homosexuality, leading to the increase of legalization of same-sex marriages in North America. Shifting the public ' s view of the LGBT community is one of the biggest changes in our generation, as what was thought to be morally wrong 20 years ago is now more widely accepted in society today. Having friends in the LGBT community, I feel passionately about the issues they face as I have witnessed the struggles they had to overcome due to the negative perception that society has formed about same-sex relationships. Our conversations about determining sexual identities led me to ask th ese questions: Are we all born into our genders? Or do we define our sexuality based on our own free will and social circumstances? I believe in the understanding and acceptance of people from different walks of life. As stated in Maslow ' s Hierarchy of Needs, a sense of love and acceptance needs to be fulfilled before one can achieve self-actualization and I think that the conservative laws that are irrelevant in the increasingly liberal world we live in today. To write this paper, I will be reviewing literature and looking for statistics, research papers and academic journals from databases available in the school library as well as Google. An example would be SOCIndex and JSTOR. I expect to find theoretical evidence that sexual orientation is defined by a biological process or by social influences. Given the nature of this study, I feel that a study of statistics and research papers would be more fitting and thus will not be conducting any pers onal interviews with subjects. I will also be applying sociological concept of symbolic interactionism to the research I have found. For example, how the socialization of an individual can affect their gender identity due to religion or family upbringing. Diamond M. Lisa (1998) Development of Sexual Orientation Among Adolescent and Young Adult Women. Childhood indicators of sexual orientation. Lesbians recalled having feminine childhoods as compared to heterosexual women who remembered being tomboys ' when they were younger. The limitations of this study could include a lack in factors identified in different case studies on homosexual behaviour, such as social status, family background, income level, education level and whether they have homosexual influences around them. The sampling size of the research could also affect the credibility of the information as a small number of test subjects may not accurately represent the society as a whole. The information collected could also be limited to the geographical location of where it was taken from as this may differ across the globe. I do not expect to draw a final conclusion regarding whether homosexuality is in-born or socially cultivated as I do not believe there can be a definite answer to this debate. It is hard to explicitly pinpoint the genesis of homosexuality, but I will contribute my own criticism at the end of the paper. Also, looking into this topic would allow me to broaden my knowledge about the social issues faced by our generation today.
Friday, March 13, 2020
The Cost of Living Essays The Cost of Living Essay The Cost of Living Essay Ronda Braxton Public Speaking The Cost Of Living In the early nineteen seventies the cost living was affordable for the American families, As a child I remembered my mother sending me to PeteÃ¢â¬â¢s Confection Store, I would put to the items in my little red wagon and bring them home for my mother. The items that Id shop for were eggs, a loaf of bread, milk, and a six pack of seven-up sodas. There is a major difference in the price of these items then compared to now, a carton of eggs use to cost $. 25 cents per carton, a loaf of bread $. 25 cent, milk $1. 5 a gallon, and a six pack of soda was $. 70 cent per pack. Now, the cost of eggs per carton is $2. 50, a loaf of bread is $2. 00, a gallon of milk is $3. 50, and six pack of soda is $3. 00 depending on the brand. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy the cost of living is even on the rise, this explains the recession that has took over our nation. Some people in the American society barely have enough finances to liv e on the every day necessities to survive in this economic dilemma; as a result, the loss of jobs has lead to poverty in the United States for American people. Basically, people cant afford to buy food, afford adequate housing, or dont have enough money to pay their utility bills. Many people have to seek help through different agencies to help them with their essential needs. First off, the cost of food in the grocery store is very high; the average family of four is spending five hundred dollars a month on groceries consisting of bread, diary products, meats, and poultry. The cost of a loaf of bread is two dollars, milk is costing two dollars ninety five cents, a family sized pack of hamburgers is eleven dollars, and family pack of chicken wings is ten dollars, the cost of food in todays market is ridiculous. Secondly, the cost of utilities has sky rocketed, American families cant afford in this economy in the average family spent on monthly bills in the seventies and present time on their utilities. Electricity around about thirty dollars and gas was thirty Ã¢â¬â six per gallon for your car even to heat your house and now the electricity can cost you a month roughly $85. 3 and the winter months your gas bill cost is at $125. 00 that is a big difference from the past and present what the cost of energy and gas. Third, In the nineteen seventies the average new house would cost you about thirty two thousands-five hundred dollars even though the average made twelve thousand nine hundred a year in yet that was still high for some people; accordingly to the housing market an average how will cost a family about one hundred ninety five thousand dollar in middle class neighborhood. Prices relate to this economic crisis, many companies had to shut their doors on American society, some went over seas, so unemployment increased were people could not find good paying jobs or out of work; in the same matter, people were losing their homes and some them had to live with other relatives in the same token otherÃ¢â¬â¢s hand to live on the streets or in shelter because they became homeless. People didnt know how they were going to feed their children because the cost of food was so high, they had to go to out reaches to feed their families on the other hand could not afford to feed their family on their salaries because the economic crush; In addition, high cost of utilities a person could not afford costly prices of electric or gas so they had to go energy assistance for help paying their billÃ¢â¬â¢s. In conclusion, the cost of living has took a turn in history with the unemployment rate that cause many American people to go into poverty in the United States, but we do have more resources now than we had in the past; In contrast, we have numerous of food pantries, energy assistances center, shelters for families or individual person, and we have loan modification programs to lower interest rate to keep our homes going into foreclosure.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Financial management - Essay Example The Return on Equity, ROE, measures how much profit a company earned in comparison to the money shareholders have invested. Generally, the higher it is the more promising a company is. Potential investors rely on ROE when deciding whether or not to invest their money in a company. Furthermore, financial institutions use the ROE to assess capability of a company meeting its loan repayment obligations (Bull, p.29). Net profit margin is the ratio of net profits to net sales of a company.Ã This ratio reflects companys efficiency especially within its industry.Ã Investors are attracted to stocks of companies with high net profit margin (Moyer, James and William, p.70) It is the ratio of company market share price to Earnings per share and is mostly used as a valuation of investments indicator. P/E reflects the premium paid for a share and thus growth investors look for higher P/E ratios in contrast to value investors. It reflects future earnings growth of a company and consequently implying it has no debt risk to banks. . It is important for investors and financial institutions to note that financial ratios are subject to weakness in accounting methods. In addition, some ratios on their own are meaningless and thus need to be combined with others to draw a conclusive financial decision. Thus, in my opinion financial ratios should be used as indicators and not as complete evidence of company financial position (Beyer,